One of the cornerstones of modern management quality is standardization. According to the International Standards Organization (ISO) standardization is “the process of establishing and applying rules for the purpose of streamlining in this area for the benefit and with the participation of all stakeholders, in particular to achieve universal maximum savings in compliance with functional conditions and security requirements.” In the explanatory dictionary of computer science V.I. Pershikov and V.M. Savinkov’s concept of standardization is defined as adoption of an agreement on specification, production and use hardware and software of computer technology; establishment and application of standards, norms, rules, etc.
Standardization performs the following functions:
- ordering of objects (products, works, services, processes), created by people in different countries;
- consolidation in normative documents of optimal requirements for ordered objects;
- establishment of rules for the application of these normative documents.
- provides interchangeability of elements of a complex products;
- brings together the level of quality of goods produced in different countries;
- romotes the exchange of scientific and technical information;
- facilitate international trade;
- accelerates the scientific and technological progress of the participants international organizations.
The need to standardize the development of PS at the international level, according to ISO/IEC 12207 (introduction), is defined as follows: The software is an integral part of information technology and traditional systems such as transport, military, medical and financial. There are many a variety of standards, procedures, methods, instrumental tools and operating environment types for development and management software.
This diversity makes it difficult for software design and management, especially when combining software products and service programs. The software development strategy requires a shift from of this set of alternatives to a common order that will allow professionals practicing in the software, “to speak in one language” in the development and management of software security. This International Standard provides such a general order”.
Thus, in the process of standardization, norms are developed, rules, requirements, characteristics regarding the object standardization, which are issued in the form of a regulatory document. Since certification establishes conformity the current standard, without the availability of standards it is impossible and certification
Types of regulatory documents recommended by international organizations for standardization (ISO / IEC), as well as adopted in the state standardization system are presented in Figure 4.6. (standards, specifications, codes of practice, regulations, provisions).
A standard is a normative document developed on the basis of consensus, approved by a recognized body, aimed at achieving the optimal degree of ordering in a certain areas. The standard is set for universal and multiple use general principles, rules, characteristics advisory nature, concerning various types activities or their results.
Thus, standards in the development of PS are important for a number of reasons. The main ones are:
1. Standards bring together the best of practice activities of creating PS and avoid the repetition of past errors.
2. Standards provide the necessary basis for the process quality assurance: it is enough to control compliance standards.
3. Standards allow you to streamline the development process, which makes development transparent and reduces training costs professional activities during the rotation of personnel.
With the current level of complexity of software systems and in conditions of market competition seems to be an urgent task creation of technology for collective software development (PS), which will reflect the realities of the development process and to ensure the growth of the level of production with the appropriate quality created software products (PI). Due to the variety of types of PS and how to develop them, technology should provide mechanisms own adaptation and automation. Also relevant are aspects of economic efficiency and legal protection of technology when using it to create real software development processes.
Many modern researchers in the field of processes software development considers the procedure for creating programs as an entity that includes three closely related components: process (development organization), development team and software product. Descriptions given in articles and literature UI development procedures consider in detail its organization (process), while ignoring the detailed description of other components. Those models of software development technology components that can be found in modern literature, are mostly descriptive rather than formal character.
The need to create complex software systems leads to the need to regulate the creative process. And each programming methodology tries to build a development process in such a way as to minimize the creative element in cases routine work. In other words, methodologies seek to make to reduce the number of errors in order to switch as early as possible if not to production, then at least to what is analogous production in software development. Hence the attempt to distinguish program plan and design, user specifications needs and plan, the choice of tools for the work of the programmer and the work itself. This also leads to the emergence of rules and regulations, following which reduces the likelihood of erroneous decisions.
Essentially, any methodology is a set regulations and prescriptions. In particular, any methodology builds its life cycle model as the basis for these agreements.
The concept of the life cycle in itself from methodologies is not depends. And in the “chaotic” construction of early software products, and in modern “hard” methodologies, and in called “lightweight” methodologies can be pointed to life cycle. And although the form of representation of life cycles in different cases beyond recognition, we insist that at the heart of any development and maintenance vision software products are common processes that ultimately lead projects from their ideas to satisfaction of needs user. Any methodology prescribes the organization of these general processes. Let’s see how the pre-assessment works. the complexity of developing software systems based on statistical methods depending on the stages of program development.
When using integrated tools, companies developing standard solutions (under this category fall into the so-called “inhausers” – companies involved in maintenance of the core business) it becomes possible to build program complexity forecasts based on the collected statistics. The statistical method is well suited for solving such typical problems. tasks and is practically not suitable for forecasting unique projects. At in the case of unique projects, other approaches are used, discussion which is outside the scope of this article.
Typical tasks fall on the development departments from the business, because a preliminary estimate of the complexity could greatly simplify the tasks planning and management, especially since there is an accumulated base on projects, in which not only the final results are saved, but and all primary and intermediate